Recently, OneNote 2013 on my Windows 8 VHD was refusing to sync with SkyDrive. It complained that I was not connected to the internet - even though I was able to access skydrive.com or any web site without any issues.
The problem seemed to related to my LAN connection showing an exclamation mark and also falsely indicating that I was not connected to the internet. Restarting did not fix the problem and I'm not sure how it got into this confused state.
Here is what I did to fix that:
1. Open CMD.exe as an Admin
2. Run the following command: netsh winsock reset
3. Restart the OS